1. Education

Nuremberg Trial
Guide picks
After the end of World War II, the Allies tried 22 top Nazi officials for crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. Find out who were the accused, what evidence was found against them, and which were found guilty.

The Accused of the Nuremberg Trial
From your About.com Guide - The top Nazis on trial. Were they guilty of war crimes? What were their sentences?

Albert Speer Cross-Examined by the U.S.: Full Text
A very long document. Albert Speer, Hitler's architect and German minister of armaments, discusses in detail the uses of slave labor.

Creation of the Tribunal and the Law Behind It
Did you know that Allies created the London Charter of the International Military Tribunal to establish the tribunal? This page also illuminates how the laws under the tribunal differed from U.S. laws.

Crimes Against Humanity
A definition of this phrase as well as an explanation as to why it is considered a separate, heinous crime.

The Defendants
A listing of the 21 defendants plus their position and sentence.

The Defendants and Verdicts
By Ben Austin, short biographical sketches of the 21 defendants.

Final Chapter for the Thousand-Year Reich
An excellent summary and starting off point to learn about the trial. This article gives a basic overview of what happened to the "small-fry" and then outlines the major defendants - with a small bio on each. This article also gives some insight as to the surrounding problems of trying leaders of an enemy state - should they just be executed? why give them a trial? where should the trial be held?

Hermann Göring Cross-Examined by the U.K.: Full Text
A very long document. In this text, Sir David Maxwell-Fyfe is asking Göring about the British Air Force officers who escaped from Stalag Luft III. Göring is shifty and uncooperative.

Hermann Göring Cross-Examined by the U.S.: Full Text
A very long document. Göring has a lot to say about the actions and reasoning within the Third Reich. In his testimony he states, "during the war I was an officer, a soldier, and I was not concerned with whether I shared an opinion or not I had merely to serve my country as a soldier." Unlike Speer, Göring accepts no responsibility.

The Indictments: A Summary
A summary of the charges brought against the defendants, including an explanation of the four counts (conspiracy to wage aggressive war, waging aggressive war, war crimes, and crimes against humanity).

The Indictments and the Entering of Pleas: Full Text
A very long document. The full text of the indictment read on the first day of the trial (November 20, 1945) which fully describes the four counts against the accused as well as a few examples. Also included on this page are the Statements of Individual Responsibility for each of the defendants which states the counts of which each defendant stands accused.

Interview with Drexel Sprecher
What was the atmosphere in the court room like when the concentration camp film was shown? Do you think the defendants had an adequate defense? What was the attitude of the German people to the trial? Court TV News Editor Jim Lyons asks Drexel Sprecher, U.S. Nuremberg prosecutor of Hans Fritzsche and Baldur von Schirach, these questions and more.

Nuremberg Trial: An Overview
An overview of the Nuremberg Trial (also known as the International Military Tribunal), including information on the judgment, intention of the trial, significant findings, and legal ramifications of the trial.

Nuremberg War Crimes Trials: The Avalon Project at the Yale Law School
This is an extremely extensive collection of materials relating to the Nuremberg Trial, including motions, orders, testimonies, documents, rules of procedure, and much, much more. (Hint: Scroll down their screen a little to see the listing)

Photographs of the Nuremberg Trial
152 historical photographs relating to the trial and the participants, including various pictures of the dock, the prosecutors, portraits of the defendants, and the bodies after the sentences of hanging had been carried out.

Robert Jackson's Closing Statement: Full Text
A very long document. Justice Jackson sums up the 187 days of the trial: "It is impossible in summation to do more than outline with bold strokes the vitals of this Trial's mad and melancholy record, which will live as the historical text of the twentieth century's shame and depravity."

Robert Jackson's Opening Statement: Full Text
A very long document. Justice Jackson, who is an eloquent speaker, states, "[t]he wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant, and so devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored, because it cannot survive their being repeated." Read the opening statement, given on the second day of the trial (November 21, 1945) to feel the tone of the trial.

Sir Hartley Shawcross' Opening Statement: Full Text
A very long document. On the twelfth day of the trial, Sir Hartley Shawcross (Chief Prosecutor for Great Britain and Northern Ireland) spoke "to present the case on Count Two of the Indictment and to show how these defendants, in conspiracy with each other, and with persons not now before this Tribunal, planned and waged a war of aggression in breach of the treaty obligations by which, under international law, Germany, as other states, has thought to make such wars impossible."

Testimony of Otto Ohlendorf: Full Text
A very long document. Testifying for the prosecution, SS Gruppenführer Otto Ohlendorf (commander of Einsatzgruppe D) discusses in detail the murder of masses of Jews by the Nazi killing squads (Einsatzgruppen) in the East.

Testimony of Rudolf Höss: Full Text
A very long document. Rudolf Höss, the commandant of Auschwitz, discusses in detail the process of killing in Auschwitz.

Who's Who: The Major Participants
Don't recognize a name? This page has an alphabetical listing of both the counselors and the accused, accompanied by their position.

You can opt-out at any time. Please refer to our privacy policy for contact information.

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.