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The Holocaust Timeline

1869-1932 | 1933-1940 | 1941-Present

1933

January 30Hitler becomes chancellor of Germany
February 27Reichstag fire
February 28Series of emergency decrees declared in Germany - government suspends many civil rights including freedom of press, speech, and assembly
March 20Dachau established (originally a concentration camp for opponents of the Nazis)
March 24Enabling Act passed
April 1Government organized boycott on Jewish stores (Germany)
April 7Minister of the Interior (Germany) issued law of civil servants;
Quotas on number of Jewish students allowed in higher education (Germany)
April 26Formation of the Gestapo (Geheime Staatspolizei)
May 10Book burnings
JuneHitler outlaws all political parties other than the Nazi Party
July 14Decree declares the Nazi Party to be the sole political party within Germany
August 25The Haavara agreement signed
SeptemberJews removed from various fields of entertainment including music, art, and literature

1934

January 26Germany and Poland sign a ten year non-aggression pact
June 30The "Night of Long Knives" - the SS purge the SA under Hitler's orders
August 2Paul von Hindenberg dies
August 3Hitler assumes powers of both President and Chancellor

1935

January 13Germany retakes the Saarland
September 15Nuremberg Laws passed

1936

March 7Germany forces enter the Rhineland
August 1The Olympic Games begin in Nazi Germany
October 25The Rome-Berlin Axis agreement signed

1937

July 16Buchenwald camp opens
November 25Germany and Japan sign pact
December 14Decree states that Gypsies are "inveterate criminals"

1938

March 13Annexation of Austria (Anschluss)
March 23Jewish community organizations are no longer recognized by the government (Germany)
April 24Jews must register their property (Germany)
April 26Jewish property expropriated (Austria)
May 29Jewish role in economy restricted to 20 percent - first anti-Jewish law in Hungary
June 25Jewish physicians only allowed to treat Jewish patients (Germany)
July 5-15Evian Conference - 32 countries met to discuss the refugee and immigration problem
July 21Introduction of identity cards (effective January 1, 1939)
August 17Jews are required to add "Israel" to their name for men and "Sarah" for women (Germany)
August 26The Zentralstelle für Jüdische Auswanderung (Central Office for Jewish Emigration) is set up in Vienna under Adolf Eichmann
September 27Jews barred from practicing law (Germany)
September 29Munich Conference
October 5Jewish passports are marked with the letter "J" for "Jude"
November 7Hershel Grynszpan assassinates Ernst vom Rath
November 9-10Kristallnacht (Germany & Austria)
November 15Jewish children expelled from German schools

1939

January 1The Measure for the Elimination of Jews from the German Economy - bans Jews from working with Germans
May 5Law enacted that defines who is a Jew and further restricts participation in the economy to 6 percent (Hungary)
May 15Ravensbrück camp established
August 23-24Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
September 1Hitler announces that he will invade Poland;
Curfew for Jews - 8:00 p.m. (Germany)
September 2France and Britain order Hitler to leave Poland or they will declare war;
Stutthoff concentration camp established
September 3France and Britain declare war on Germany
September 17Soviet Union invades Poland in the east
September 21Heydrich orders ghettos established in occupied Poland under Judenräte
September 27Warsaw (Poland) surrenders
October 8Piotrkow, Poland first ghetto established (unguarded)
October 12Government General established in Poland
October 18Jews must wear a Star of David in Wloclawek, Poland (first time introduced)
November 15-17German authorities destroy all the synagogues in Lodz
November 17Decree forbade Gypsies to leave their residences
November 23All Jews over the age of twelve must wear a white arm band with a blue Star of David (Government General, occupied Poland)
DecemberLeczyca ghetto established (closed in January 1941)
December 5-6German authorities seize Jewish property (Poland)

1940

February 8Lodz ghetto established (guarded)
April 9Germany attacks Denmark (lasts 5 days) and Norway
April 27Himmler orders creation of Auschwitz
May 1Lodz ghetto sealed
March 7"Bloody Tuesday" in the Lodz ghetto
May 10Germany attacks Belgium (surrenders May 28), Netherlands, and Luxembourg;
Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain
June 5Germany attacks France
June 22France surrenders
June - DecemberBattle of Britain
July 9German blitzkrieg on London begins
July 19Telephones confiscated from Jews (Germany)
October 16Warsaw ghetto established
September 20Breendonck camp (Belgium) gets first prisoners
September 27Pact of Berlin (Tripartite Pact) signed between Germany, Italy, and Japan
October 22Jewish businesses are registered (Netherlands)
November 16Warsaw ghetto sealed

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Photograph of the boycott from the National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives.
Photograph of the Olympic Games from the National Archives, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives.
Photograph of burning synagogue during Kristallnacht from the Trudy Isenberg Collection, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives.
Photograph of Hitler is part of the Estelle Bechoefer Collection, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives.
Photograph of Auschwitz gate from the Main Commission for the Investigation of Nazi War Crimes, courtesy of USHMM Photo Archives.

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