The Berlin Wall
On August 13, 1961, the East German government erected the Berlin Wall in order to keep its citizens from fleeing to the West. For 28 years, the Berlin Wall separated West from East and became a symbol of the Cold War. Learn more about the rise and fall of the Berlin Wall.
In the late 1950s, Fidel Castro took control of Cuba by force and has remained its dictatorial leader for over four decades. As the leader of the only communist country in the Western Hemisphere, Castro has been the focus of international controversy. Find out more about Castro in this biography.
Enrico Fermi made important discoveries about the atom which led to the splitting of the atom (atomic bombs) and the harnessing of its heat into an energy source (nuclear energy).
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer was the director of the Manhattan Project, the U.S.'s attempt during World War II to create an atomic bomb. Oppenheimer's struggle after the war with the morality of building such a massively destructive weapon epitomized the moral dilemma that faced scientists who worked to create the atomic and hydrogen bombs.
Laika the Dog
At the very beginning of the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union, the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik 2 with Laika the dog on board. Laika became the very first living creature to enter orbit.